Arguably one of the most opinionated assembly processes when whipping up your next racing engine project is ring gap, and most to the point, the top compression ring. Race Winning Brands and their company, Wiseco Pistons, is known for its vast array of motorsport pistons, but many racers rely on their related piston rings with success, as well.
What Exactly Is Ring Gap?
“The top ring sees the most heat,” DiBlasi points out. “With that in mind, the smaller the gap, the less opportunity there is for combustion chamber pressure to make its way past the first ring. The greater contact the top ring has with the cylinder wall, the better heat transfers to the cylinder and onto the water jackets.”
Not Too Tight
The theory of minimum possible piston ring gap has limits, especially when you factor the thermal expansion of materials onto the overall gap theories. As the block, piston, and rings all heat up, they change dimensions ever so slightly and at different rates. DiBlasi takes it down to the molecular level.
“Since the top ring will see most of the heat, they expand quite a bit,” DiBlasi says. “The gap you create in the top ring is to accommodate the maximum expansion you anticipate the top ring requiring.
If the top ring is gapped too small, when it expands, the ends will run into themselves. This added force introduces even more heat, and the rings expand further. Once that happens, catastrophic failure will occur rapidly, as it is a continuous cycle of more heat, more outward pressure, and with nowhere for the ring to expand.
Piston ring gap theory is critical to ensure that the top ring is not bypassing compression, but not expanding so much that the ends run into each other. — Nickolaus DiBlasi, Wiseco
Read The Manufacturers Specifications
The best way to prevent this kind of runaway destruction is to pay attention to the information provided with your new Wiseco pistons and rings. DiBlasi adds, “We have outlined our recommendations that are included with pistons. These are also available in our catalogs and website.”
Setting ring gaps can be a slow process, but with experience, you can get a feel for what each ring will need and get closer to the finished spec quicker. Remember only to file one end of the ring and avoid damaging any coating the rings may have.
Ring manufacturers know their individual ring materials and their expansion properties down to the molecular level; they understand their exact expansion rates to factor into a specific gap. Following their individual gap specifications are the best bet for a ring gap that is just the right size.